Routing is the difficult task in terms of wireless sensor network. Designing a routing protocol for wireless sensor network is different from designing it for the traditional networks. In case of the WSN, there is a strict energy saving requirement and there is a issue of the increasing network lifetime. Therefore, while designing the routing protocol for WSN resource management is important. The main function of the routing is route selection and data forwarding. The route selection includes selecting the best route between two nodes.
The data transmission is done by selecting the next node or hop to forward the data. The packet forwarding in the traditional routing approaches for multihop wireless networks is done by selecting the node proactively at the sender side before transmission. The new approach discussed in this article uses the broadcasting nature of the wireless network for packet forwarding.
This approach is named as "Opportunistic Routing OR ". The key idea behind OR is to use the broadcasting nature of wireless network such that transmission from one node can be overheard by multiple nodes. Instead of choosing the next forwarder node ahead of time, the OR chooses the next node dynamically at the time of transmission. The forwarding is done by the node closest to the destination. It has been shown that OR gives better performance than traditional routing.
The key task of the OR is to select the forwarder set and prioritize the nodes in the set. Consider the following example. Traditional routing will choose only one intermediate node for data forwarding, while OR will consider all these nodes for data forwarding. Thus, OR proves to be more efficient and reliable than traditional routing. In the remaining paper the existing work related to the OR in different types of networks and its comparative analysis 14, 15, Illustration in which each source node has multiple intermediate nodes along with packet delivery probability for data transmission to the destination node.
In this paper, the author proposes the scheme called Geographic Random Forwarding, which is based on geographic routing.
In wireless network the relay node is not known by the sender but is decided after the transmission. It uses the telecasting nature of the wireless network. Since the topologies are randomly changed, the sender node does not know which of its neighbouring node will act as a relay node.
Hence, to deal with contention at the receiver end, author has proposed the above scheme. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: The sender node simply broadcasts the packet along with its own location and destination location. All the listening node in the neighbour will receive the packet and based on the own distance from the destination, they prioritize themselves to act as relay node.
The relayed packet is then sent to a broadcasting address which also contains the transmitter and final destination location thus providing a geographic route without maintaining routing table. Thus this paper describes the forwarding approach based on the geographic location and the random selection of the relay node through the contention at the receiver side.
The analysis of the multihop performance is done in terms of the number of hops to reach to the destination as a function of distance and the number of nodes in the neighbour nodes.
This is the first most basic protocol which practically implemented the Opportunistic Routing in the wireless networks. ExOR uses batches to send the packets. The source node collects the packets which are intended to the same destination and groups them into a batch. Each batch has its own Batch ID. The source node chooses the Batch ID and the forwarder list prioritized based on the ETX metrics3: shorter the distance of node from target node higher the priority.
Only the nodes having higher priority are included in the forwarder list. Each node in the forwarder list maintains a local batch map. The node adds the packet into the packet buffer for the corresponding batch. The node compares the entry for each batch map in the packet with corresponding entry in the local batch map and if the higher priority entry is detected, it replaces the entry in the local batch map. ExOR implements scheduled transmission of packets to ensure that only one node sends the packet at one time. The following example illustrates the working of ExOR.
Example of four node network with link delivery probabilities. In the above network, there are four nodes connected to each other along with their link delivery probabilities. ExOR doesn't respond to the no updated measurements. It only considers the information available at the time of transmission. So, the incorrect measurements may degrade its performance and also may cause packet duplication. It always seeks the coordination among all the nodes which causes overhead in case of large network.
It doesn't reuse the information. In this paper author proposes MTS algorithm for selecting forwarding list which minimizes the expected transmission rate under the ideal ACK condition. Athanasopoulou, E. Back-pressure-based packet-by-packet adaptive routing in communication networks. Mao, X. Energy-efficient opportunistic routing in wireless sensor networks.
Darehshoorzadeh, A. Modeling and comparison of candidate selection algorithms in opportunistic routing.
A Survey on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Communication Networks
Computer Networks , 55 13 , — Ostovari, P. Cooperative internet access using helper nodes and opportunistic scheduling. Liu, F. Analysis of proportional fair scheduling under bursty on-off traffic. Chen, W. Opportunistic routing and scheduling for wireless networks. Huhtonen, A. Telecommunications Software and Multimedia , 1—9. Eom, H. Information-dynamics-conscious development of routing software: A case of routing software that improves link-state routing based on future link-delay-information estimation.
The Computer Journal , 51 2 , — Ade, S. Zhong, Z. On the efficacy of opportunistic routing.
In 4th annual IEEE communications society conference on sensor, mesh and ad hoc communications and networks, Truman, T. A measurement-based characterization of the time variation of an indoor wireless channel. Brassard, G. Fundamentals of algorithmics Vol. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
A Survey on Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Communication Networks | Semantic Scholar
Multihop Wireless Networks : Opportunistic Routing. This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. Key Features: Addresses opportunistic routing, an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks Discusses the technological challenges lying behind this new technology, and covers a wide range of practical implementation issues Explores many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles of opportunistic routing, performance limits and performance improvement, and compares them to traditional routing e.
Taxonomy of Opportunistic Routing. Energy Efficiency of Geographic.
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